Brazil’s climatic typology is very diverse. The huge territorial expanse, allied with factors such as temperature, altitude, barometric pressure and proximity to the ocean, provide the country with climatic conditions that can please everyone. It is one of the richest and most complex ecosystems in the world, with extremely diversified vegetation and sceneries.
The Brazilian territory is divided into climatic strips: 92% of the territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn. We can therefore say that the Brazilian climate is predominantly tropical (sun and warm temperatures the whole year), with equatorial and subtropical (temperate zones) strips distributed over the remaining 8% of the nation’s territory. The predominance of lower altitudes throughout the country provides more elevated temperatures. The average annual temperature is approximately 28ºC (84ºF) in the northern region and 20ºC (69ºf), in the south.
Although almost the totality of the country is within tropical zone, more than 60% of population lives in areas where altitude, sea winds or cold polar fronts moderate the temperature. Plateau cities such as São Paulo, Brasília and Belo Horizonte have very mild climate with average temperature around 19º (66F). Rio de Janeiro, Recife, and Salvador on the coast have warm climate balanced by cool winds. In the Southern Brazilian cities of Porto Alegre and Curitiba, the subtropical climate is similar to parts of United States and Europe with occasional frosting. In this region, temperatures can fall below zero during winter.
The seasons are the exact opposite of those in Europe and the United States, except in the northern region of the country.
Summer lasts from December to February and is the Brazilian holiday season. The weather during these months can get extremely hot, especially in the interior of Northeast and close to Rio de Janeiro. In general, temperatures range from about 25°C (77°F) to 35°C (95°F) in the summer. Rain occurs all year round and throughout the country, usually presenting tropical showers between January and March.
The hottest part of Brazil is the Northeast where during the dry season, between May and November, temperatures of more than 38ºC (100ºF) are recorded frequently. The Northeast has greater seasonal variation in temperatures than does the Amazon region. Along the Atlantic coast from Recife to Rio de Janeiro, temperatures range from 23º to 27º C (73º F - 81ºF). Inland, on higher ground temperatures are lower, ranging from 18º - 21ºC (64º F- 71º F).
From June to August are the winter months, and the coldest areas are the southern states, where winter average temperatures are between 13°C (55°F) and 18°C (64°F). The winters tend to be dry.
The driest part of the country is the northeast interior, the so-called "polygon of drought", encompassing 10 percent of the country's territory. In this region rainfall is undependable and the evaporation rate is very high, making it difficult to raise crops, presenting so many problems of poverty due to the lack of water. Along the coastline, south from Recife, the mountains trigger rainfall from the Trade Winds. In some places behind the mountains, such as the region south of Salvador, the hinterland is dry because the rain is dumped on the mountains leaving very little for the area behind.
On the other hand, rain is definitely not a problem in Amazon. There, the rain comes all year, however it is stronger and more frequent in January and February. The Amazon Basin is the rainiest part of Brazil (the term 'rainforest' is a bit of a giveaway), and while it is humid, temperatures average a reasonable 27°C (80°F) with only a very small seasonal variation between the warmest and the coldest months.
Brazil's most intense rainfall is found around the mouth of the Amazon River near the city of Belém, and also in the vast upper regions of Amazon where more than 78 inches (2,000 millimeters) of rain falls every year. Another important region of heavy rainfall is along the edge of the great escarpment in the state of São Paulo. Most of Brazil, however, has moderate rainfall of between 39 to 59 inches (1,000 to 1,500 millimeters) a year, with most of the rain falling in the summer, between December and April.
Extreme temperatures are rare, but they may occur: in the winter, some cities in the south of the country experience negative temperatures, with frost and snow. And in Rio de Janeiro, in the peak of summer, the temperature may hit 40ºC (105ºF).
To convert ºC to ºF, you should multiply the ºC times 1,8 and add 32, eg. 25ºC = 77ºF.
For current weather conditions, visit: www.climatempo.com.br and http://br.weather.com